Bergensgruppen av NRRL, Totlandsvegen 501, 5226 Nesttun.
Bruk "Kontaktskjema [LINK]"

Velkommen til Bergensgruppen av NRRL, LA1B

Gruppens formål er å samle medlemmer til møter og aktiviteter, og forøvrig ivareta deres interesser. Likedan å avholde kurs for nye medlemmer og radiointeresserte som ønsker å avlegge prøve for radioamatørlisensen.

Bergensgruppen ble stiftet som Bergens Radio Amatør Klub den 25. november 1922 og fikk sitt kallesignal LA1B i 1949. I den tiden har gruppen vært en av landets største interessegrupper innenfor radioamatørhobbyen og samler mennesker fra alle samfunnslag med radiokommunikasjon og teknikk som hobby.

Ønsker du å bli med, er du hjertelig velkommen.

Bergensgruppen av NRRL, QTH : Totland

Bergensgruppen av NRRL, QTH : Totland

Bergensgruppen av NRRL, QTH : Totland

NRRL – Norsk Radio Relæ Liga – Nyheter

By | 5.11.2016|Categories: Nyheter|

  • RSS NRRL

    • Sommerferie på kontoret 26.6.2017
      Det blir ferieavvikling på NRRLs kontor fra og med tirsdag 4. juli, til og med torsdag 27. juli. Siste arbeidsdag før ferien blir derfor torsdag 29. juni. Kontoret er åpent som vanlig fra og med uke 31, med tirsdag 1. august som første arbeidsdag. Vi ønsker våre medlemmer, støttespillere og radiointeresserte en riktig god sommer!
    • Den lille antenneboken 7.5.2017
      Førsteopplaget av Den lille antenneboken ble revet bort på kort tid under Norsk Hammeeting. Nå er andre opplag lagt ut for salg i nettbutikken. 
    • 21 nye radioamatører i Bergen 2.5.2017
      Bergensgruppen har arrangert lisenskurs over 12 kurskvelder i tidsrommet 1.februar til 26.april.

Drop-in/sommeravslutning med grilling.

By | 13.6.2017|Categories: Aktiviteter|

Kommende mandag 19. juni er siste offisielle drop-in før sommerferien der vi fyrer opp grillen uavhengig av hva vær værgudene skulle by på! Skulle det bli veldig vått har vi et godt utstyrt kjøkken. Ta med egen grillmat og drikke. Gruppen holder grill, grillkull og noe kald mat så langt beholdningen rekker. Div. potetsalat, salat, dressing, ketchup, sennep osv. Vi har også kaffe som vanlig.

Håper våre nye medlemmer har anledning å komme.  Vi har nylig hatt service på beam antennen med bytting coaxkabel, så det er god anledning å prøve seg på noen kontakter på HF-stasjonen.

Det vil være folk der fra klokken 16:00 og utover kvelden denne dagen. Skulle det bli vel seint har vi minst 9 sengeplasser…

Parkering langs vei er begrenset til noen få biler. Vi kan parkere fra der stien opp til hytten starter og nedover til “parkering forbudt opphører”-skiltet. Henstiller derfor medlemmene til å benytte parkeringsplass på toppen av bakken dersom det er fullt langs den offentlige veien.  Se for øvrig: Totland parkering og tilkomst.

73 de LA4XLA

 

Tur til Shetlandshytten på Rundemanen lørdag 3 Juni

By | 1.6.2017|Categories: Aktiviteter|

Om noen vil være med å se vår repeaterlokasjon på Shetlandshytten kan man hive seg med Lørdag 3 Juni!

Vi går fra Fløien øvre stasjon kl 11:00. Møtes på platået rett utenfor ankomsthallen. Gåturen opp til Rundemanen tar ca 1 time.

Det er ikke noe toaletter på toppen så husk å benytte dette på fløien før avgang.

Det kan blåse meget friskt på toppen så husk gode klær.  Ta med håndapparat. Talk inn frekvens 145,550 Mhz FM. (Tlf.: 92697390)

For de som ikke kjenner meg vil jeg ha lisenskortet dinglende og og radioen i hånden.

Matbit i byen etterpå kan vi ta på sparket om det er stemning for dette.

73 de LA4XLA.

Fløibanen:

http://floyen.no/wp-content/uploads/rutetider-2017.pdf

Se informasjon om Shetlandshytten her:

Shetlandshytten

Hva er WSJT / JT65?

By | 23.5.2017|Categories: Digital|

WSJT (amateur radio software)

WSJT
Developer(s) Joe Taylor, K1JT
Initial release 2005
Stable release 7.06 r1933 (May 26, 2010)
Preview release 8.0 r1944 (June 19, 2010)
Development status Active
Written in Python (GUI), Fortran, C [1]
Operating system 32-bit Windows NT or later, Unix, Unix-like
Available in Software: English
Documentation: English, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Spanish
Type Amateur radio and DSP
License GPL
Website physics.princeton.edu/pulsar/K1JT/

WSJT is a computer program used for weak-signal radio communication between amateur radio operators. The program was initially written by Joe Taylor, K1JT, but is now open source and is developed by a small team. The digital signal processing techniques in WSJT make it substantially easier for amateur radio operators to employ esoteric propagation modes, such as high speed meteor scatter and moonbounce.[2]

History

WSJT was originally released in 2001 and has undergone several major revisions. Communication modes have been both added and removed from the software over the course of its development. Since 2005, the software has been released as open source software under the GNU General Public License. This licensing change required substantial rewrites and took several months to complete. Although Joe Taylor was the original developer (and still acts as maintainer), several programmers are currently involved in writing the software. Currently, the program is written in Python and C, with several utilities written in Fortran.[3]

WSJT versions up through 7.06 r1933 (referred to as colloquially as WSJT7) and earlier were aggregations of previous versions, and as such WSJT7 contained 16 different modes (FSK441, JT6M, JT65 variants A - C, JT2, JT4 variants A - G, WSPR, and a preview of JT64A). As of version 8.0 (referred to as colloquially as WSJT8) the available modes changed completely such that WSJT8 now offers 5 different modes (JTMS, ISCAT, JT64A, JT8, and Echo) -- none of which are back-compatible with WSJT7 or earlier releases.[4] This backwards-incompatibility includes JT64A, such that the preview release of JT64A in WSJT7 cannot communicate with the stable release of JT64A in WSJT8.

Communication modes provided

The software carries a general emphasis on weak-signal operation and advanced DSP techniques; however, the communication modes rely upon different ionospheric propagation modes and may be used on many different bands.

FSK441

FSK441, introduced in 2001 as the first communications mode included with WSJT,[3] is designed to support communication using streaks of radio-reflecting ions created in the ionosphere by the trails of meteors entering the Earth's atmosphere.[2] The bursts of signal created by such trails are commonly referred to as “pings”, due to their characteristic sound. Such pings may be as short as a tenth of a second and carry enough information to complete at least one stage of a contact.[5] FSK441 employs multi-frequency shift keying using four tones, at a data rate of 441 baud. Because of the choice of character codes in the protocol, it is self-synchronizing and does not require an explicit synchronization tone.[2] FSK441 is generally used on the 2-meter and 70-centimeter amateur bands. Contacts may be made at almost any time (that is, a meteor shower is not required to be in progress) at distances of up to 1400 miles (2250 km).[5]

When transmitted messages include at least one space, the FSK441 decoding algorithm uses that space character as a syncword for zero-overhead synchronization.[2]:30[6]

JT6M

JT6M, introduced in late 2002,[3] is intended for meteor scatter and other ionospheric scattering of signals, and is especially optimized for the 6-meter band. The mode also employs multiple frequency-shift keying, but at 44 tones. One of the tones is a synchronization tone, leaving 43 tones to carry data (one tone per character in the character set, which includes alphanumerics and some punctuation). The symbol rate is 21.53 baud; the actual data rate as encoded for transmit is 14.4 characters per second. The mode is known for sounding "a bit like piccolo music".[2]

JT65

JT65, developed and released in late 2003,[3] is intended for extremely weak but slowly varying signals, such as those found on troposcatter or Earth-Moon-Earth (EME, or "moonbounce") paths.[2] It can decode signals many decibels below the noise floor in a 2500 Hz band (note that SNR in a 2500 Hz band is approximately 28 dB lower than SNR in a 4 Hz band, which is closer to the channel bandwidth of an individual JT65 tone), and can often allow amateurs to successfully exchange contact information without signals being audible to the human ear. Like the other modes, multiple-frequency shift keying is employed; unlike the other modes, messages are transmitted as atomic units after being compressed and then encoded with a process known as forward error correction (or "FEC"). The FEC adds redundancy to the data, such that all of a message may be successfully recovered even if some bits are not received by the receiver. (The particular code used for JT65 is Reed-Solomon.) Because of this FEC process, messages are either decoded correctly or not decoded at all, with very high probability. After messages are encoded, they are transmitted using MFSK with 65 tones.[7]

Operators have also begun using the JT65 mode for contacts on the HF bands, often using QRP (very low transmit power);[8] while the mode was not originally intended for such use, its popularity has resulted in several new features being added to WSJT in order to facilitate HF operation.[9]

JT9

JT9, intended for MF and HF use, was introduced in an experimental version of WSJT, known as WSJT-X.[10] It uses the same logical encoding as JT65, but modulates to a 9-FSK signal. With 1-minute transmission intervals, JT9 occupies less than 16 Hz bandwidth. JT9 also has versions designed for longer transmission intervals of 2 minutes, 5 minutes, 10 minutes or 30 minutes. These extended versions take increasingly less bandwidth and permit reception of even weaker signals. [11]

Alternative software for JT65

There are alternative software packages available for JT65 including MultiPSK (a commercial package developed by F6CTE),[12] and JT65-HF HB9HQX Edition (a freeware package forked from the JT65-HF project developed by W6CQZ).[13] The JT65-HF HB9HQX Edition software may be obtained from Sourceforge.[14]

An article series on using the original JT65-HF software appeared in CQ Amateur Radio's October[15] & November 2010[16] issues.

References

  1. ^ "WSJT Program Development". 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Joe Taylor, K1JT (2006-08-10). "WSJT6 User Guide & Reference Manual" (PDF). 
  3. ^ a b c d Joe Taylor, K1JT (August 25–27, 2006). Open Source WSJT: Status, Capabilities, and Future Evolution (PDF). 12th International EME Conference. Würzburg, Germany. 
  4. ^ "WSJT Overview". 
  5. ^ a b Joe Taylor, K1JT (December 2001). "WSJT: New Software for VHF Meteor-Scatter Communication" (PDF). QST: 36–41. 
  6. ^ Joseph H Taylor, Jr, K1JT. "WSJT User Guide". Section "12. 2. FSK441".
  7. ^ Joe Taylor, K1JT (September–October 2005). "The JT65 Communications Protocol" (PDF). QEX: A Forum for Communications Experimenters: 3–12. 
  8. ^ Steve Ford, WB8IMY (July 2007). "JT65A on the HF Bands". QST: 85. 
  9. ^ "WSJT revision history and release notes". 
  10. ^ Joe Taylor, K1JT; Steve Franke, K9AN; Bill Sommerville, G4WJS (July 2017). "Work the World with WSJT-X. Part 1: Operating capabilities". RadCom. Radio Society of Great Britain. 93 (07): 40–45. ISSN 1367-1499. 
  11. ^ AC4M. "JT9". 
  12. ^ "MultiPSK - Ham Radio Software from F6CTE". 
  13. ^ "Google Group for JT65-HF HB9HQX Edition". 
  14. ^ "Download site for JT65-HF HB9HQX Edition". 
  15. ^ David Witkowski, W6DTW & Tomas Hood, NW7US (October 2010). "Communicating Under The Noise". CQ Amateur Radio. 
  16. ^ David Witkowski, W6DTW & Tomas Hood, NW7US (November 2010). "Communicating Under The Noise". CQ Amateur Radio. 

External links

Winlink

By | 23.5.2017|Categories: Digital|

Winlink

Winlink, also known as the Winlink 2000 Network, is a worldwide radio messaging system that uses amateur-band radio frequencies to provide radio interconnection services that include email with attachments, position reporting, weather bulletins, emergency relief communications, and message relay. The system is built and administered by volunteers and administered by the Amateur Radio Safety Foundation Inc., an American charitable entity and 501c(3) non-profit organization.[1]

Network

Winlink networking started by providing interconnection services for amateur radio. It is well known for its central role in amateur radio Emcomm messaging.[citation needed] The system runs several central message servers around the world for redundancy. A subset of HF gateway stations operate since 2013 as the Winlink Hybrid Network, offering message forwarding and delivery through a mesh-like smart network whenever internet connections are damaged or inoperable.[2] During the past decade it increasingly became what is now the standard network system for amateur radio email worldwide. Additionally, in response to recent needs for better disaster response communications, the network has been expanded to provide separate parallel radio email networking systems for MARS, UK Cadet, Austrian Red Cross, and other communities.

Amateur radio HF email

Generally, email communications over amateur radio in the 21st century is now considered normal and commonplace.[citation needed] Email via High frequency (HF) can be used nearly everywhere on the planet, and is made possible by connecting an HF single sideband (SSB) transceiver system to a computer, modem interface, and appropriate software. The HF modem technologies include PACTOR, Winmor, and Automatic Link Establishment (ALE).

Amateur radio HF email guidelines

Amateur radio users in each country follow the appropriate regulatory guidelines for their license. Some countries may limit or regulate types of amateur messaging (such as email) by content, origination location, end destination, or license class of the operator. Origination of third party messages, i.e., sent to an end destination who is not an amateur operator, may also be regulated in some countries; those that limit such third party messages normally have exceptions for emergency communications. In accordance with long standing amateur radio tradition, international guidelines and FCC rules section 97.113, hams using the Winlink system are advised that it is not appropriate to use it for business communications.

Users

The Winlink system is open to properly licensed amateur radio operators. The system primarily serves radio users without normal access to the internet, government and non-government public service organizations, medical and humanitarian non-profits, and emergency communications organizations. Duly authorized MARS operators may utilize the MARS part of the system. As of July 2008, there were approximately 12,000 radio users and approximately 100,000 internet correspondents. Monthly traffic volume averages over 100,000 messages.[3]

Supported radio technologies

Technical protocols

PACTOR-I, WINMOR, HSMM (WiFi), AX.25 packet, D-Star, TCP/IP, and ALE are non-proprietary protocols used in various RF applications to access the Winlink network systems. Later versions of PACTOR are proprietary and supported only by commercially available modems from Special Communications Systems GmbH. In amateur radio service, AirMail, an email software program used by the Winlink system, disables the proprietary compression technology for PACTOR-II and PACTOR-III modems and instead relies on the Open FBB protocol, also widely used by packet radio BBS forwarding systems in US.

US regulatory issues

In 2007, a US ham filed a formal petition with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)[4] aimed at reducing the signal bandwidth in automatic operation subbands; but, in May 2008 FCC ruled against the petition.[5] In the Official Order, FCC said, "Additionally, we believe that amending the amateur service rules to limit the ability of amateur stations to experiment with various communications technologies or otherwise impeding their ability to advance the radio art would be inconsistent with the definition and purpose of the amateur service.[5] Moreover, we do not believe that changing the rules to prohibit a communications technology currently in use is in the public interest." [5]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Amateur Radio Safety Foundation, Inc". ARSFI.org. 
  2. ^ http://www.navymars.org/national/wl2k/MARS%20WINLINK%202000%20REQUIREMENTS%20DOCUMENT%20(2).pdf
  3. ^ "Winlink System Traffic". Winlink.org. 
  4. ^ "FCC Petition RM-11392" (PDF). US Government Federal Communications Commission FCC. 
  5. ^ a b c "DA-08-1082A1" (DOC). US Government Federal Communications Commission FCC. 

External links

Foredrag 23. Sept.: Transmisjonslinjer, refleksjoner, og Smith-diagrammet

By | 21.5.2017|Categories: Aktiviteter, Kurs|

Tid : 23. September, klokken 12:00, Sted : Totland (Med forebehold om endring i dato.)

Erik Grindheim, LA9SJA

Transmisjonslinjer, refleksjoner, og Smith-diagrammet

Agenda, stikkord:

  • Karakteristisk impedans, hva er det egentlig?
  • Refleksjoner, hvorfor?
  • Refleksjonskoeffisienter
  • SI, kurveformer. Terminering av digitale busser, hvordan, hvorfor
    • Kompleks lastmotstand (ikke resistiv), hvordan blir det? Komplekse tall!
  • Smith-diagrammet – menneskets beste venn
    • Refleksjonskoeffisient på Smith diagrammet
  • Impedans versus avstand fra last
  • SWR vs impedans på Smith diagrammet
  • Antennetuner, virkemåte vist på Smith diagram
  • Diskontinuitet i karakteristisk impedans (les: jalla skjøt av transmisjonslinje) – hvor mye har det å si?
  • Kvartbølgetransformator av koaks
  • Kvartbølgetransformator, basert på PI & T networks med L & C

Om LA9SJA, elektronikkingeniør, arbeider med design av elektroniske produkter. Interessert i analog kretsdesign, RF-teknikk, digital signalbehandling og reguleringsteknikk. Var mest aktiv på luften for ca 20 år siden, men satser på å komme sterkere tilbake når det blir mer tid til amatørradio.

Deltakere må stille med:

Skrivesaker, linjal og helst kalkulator, samt kopier av smith diagrammet!

http://files.grindheim.net/smith.pdf